Essay on challenges of working women

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What I did not consider is that while men were away working, women did significant work from home.

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To begin with, it was exclusively the women that ensured the well-being of the family. Since women spent their time within the communities, they would be the organizers of beloved holiday celebrations. Women were essential in their roles, and would also aid in the roles of men. Due to the lack of women, there was always the need for them to cook, clean, and wash.

Women were the ones who would generally provide boarding. Some used this experience to go on and run restaurants and hotels, too. In modern America, women have even further expanded roles, and are essentially equal to men in all walks of life. Women now contribute equally to men, and had society remained the same as it was in the East, this may not be true.

Women played the biggest role in defining frontier society. This came as a surprise to me, because until this book it was mostly the men that had been discussed alongside the development of frontier society. Since the men were generally working, the women made it their job to grow and improve upon the community.

Compared to women in the East, women in the West found themselves significantly more involved in professional positions such as physicians, professors, lawyers, photographers, and journalists. These female professionals all made important contributions to their respective professions. The photo on the bottom of page is an example of how women were the ones that were concerned with the community.

In this photograph, three women are taking part in a discussion dealing with community issues. It was likely taken in the 19 th century, and is taken outside a home in Glascow, Montana Territory. It is a photo that depicts the process of women contributing to frontier society in a real-world setting.

Essay on the continued role of women's colleges

Although the purpose of this photo cannot surely be deciphered, it is likely because the conversation regarded an important community decision, especially since the pose of being in an involved conversation must have been held for an extended period of time due to camera technology. It is historically important because it has the actions of women being the center of attention, and a man simply standing to the side. This shows that these women must have been talking about something important and valued by others, and not simply being housewives.

It was women who were generally the ones that worked towards founding important social establishments. They were the ones that led projects to found or improve city parks, city streets, community libraries, and churches. Some underground railroad stations were ran by women, and they took part in many social progress groups such as the WCTU.

Polls found Western women to have better educations, have higher aspirations, and be more liberal than women from all other parts of the country. Modern capitalist society is the hiding place of numerous cases of poverty and oppression that are not immediately visible. The scattered families of middle class people, artisans, factory workers, clerks and the lower civil servants are indescribably poor and barely make ends meet in the best of times. Millions and millions of women in such families live or rather drag out an existence as household slaves, striving with a desperate daily effort to feed and clothe their families on a few coppers, economizing in everything except their own labour.

Slavery, feudalism and capitalism are alike in this respect. Every exhibit bears a ticket showing how much the woman working at home received for making it and how much she could earn per day and per hour.


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How does this work out? A woman working at home cannot earn more than one and a quarter francs i. Most of the jobs pay wages that are immeasurably lower. Take lampshades, for instance—four kopeks a dozen. Or paper bag at 15 kopeks a thousand giving a wage of six kopeks an hour. And then there are little toys with ribbons, etc.

And so on ad infinitum. It will not produce the tremendous profits obtained by bourgeois-organised exhibitions.

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Indian women, and rural women in particular, play many social and economic roles inside as well as outside the home, but their contribution does not receive due recognition. They have been excluded from the various trainings and rural development programmes which usually involve the menfolk, being offered only programmes related to child health, nutrition, etc.

We examine the participation of rural women in home and farm activities in the State of Haryana, India. It indicates the invisibility of the majority of women, who act as unpaid workers on the family farm. Care of livestock is a female domain but as dairy work is becoming modernized, women are losing control of both management and economic returns.

Training of women in animal husbandry is found to be totally neglected. Over half the respondents had no leisure time. The paper suggests a number of measures to help rural women, whose working day is often considerably longer than that of men. The participation of women in home dairy and farm activities was examined using data from three districts in Haryana, one highly developed Karnal , one moderately developed Hisar , and one least developed Mohindergarh.

From each district, one block and from each block, two villages were selected as representative of the level of rural development of that district. Wife of the functional head of the household was interviewed personally on a pre-tested structured interview schedule. All the respondents were found to be engaged in household chores, spending on average hours, with most time devoted to cooking.

Level of rural development, caste, per capita income, socioeconomic status and level of household technology were found to be positively and significantly related with the time spent in household chores. Women were the major performers of tasks related to the dairy sector and the time spent in these activities was negatively and significantly related with level of development, age of the respondent and size of land holding.

Paddy transplanting, winnowing and weeding emerged as female dominated activities, while women were equal partners in harvesting and threshing. Structured interview data obtained from women in farm households in Haryana, India, districts are used to ascertain the contribution of women in farm production activities, and to examine the effects of social and institutional framework on the same. The analysis shows that widespread participation of women in core as well as preparatory and supportive agricultural activities.

Social and institutional factors, particularly caste, landholding status, family education, and mechanisation, exert more adverse influence on labour participation than on their decision-making role. Interestingly, two modernising forces-farm mechanisation, and adoption of improved farm practices affect labour participation in the opposite direction.


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The findings point toward steps for promoting the dignity of manual work. The inspiration for the union came from Mahatma Gandhi, who led a successful strike of textile workers in He believed in creating positive organised strength by awakening the consciousness in workers. By developing unity as well as personality, a worker should be able to hold his or her own against tyranny from employers or the state.

Its original purpose was to assist women belonging to households of mill workers and its work was focused largely on training and welfare activities. The scope of its activities expanded in the early s when a survey was conducted to probe complaints by women tailors of exploitation by contractors. The survey brought out other instances of exploitation of women workers and revealed the large numbers untouched by unionisation government legislation and policies.

At the time, the women were living in the streets without shelter. After talking with the women in her office, she went with them to the areas where they were living and to the market area where they were working. While there, she met another group of women who were working as head-loaders, carrying loads of clothes between the wholesale and retail markets. As she sat with them on the steps of the warehouses where they waited for work, they discussed their jobs and their low and erratic wages. Following the meeting, Ela Bhatt wrote an article for the local newspaper and detailed the problems of the head-loaders.

The cloth merchants countered the charges against them with a news article of their own, denying the allegations and testifying to their fair treatment of the head-loaders. A public meeting of used garment dealers was called and over hundred women attended. During the meeting in a public park, a woman from the crowd suggested they form an association of their own.

We argued that a Union was not necessarily against an employer, but was for the unity of the workers.

1130 words essay on the hardship faced by working women

SEWA grew continuously from , increasing in its membership and including more and more different occupations within its fold. The conflict came to a head in during the anti-reservation riots when members of higher castes attacked the Harijans, many of whom were members of both TLA and SEWA. In particular, the growth of many new cooperatives, a more militant trade union and many supportive services has given SEWA a new shape and direction.


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  8. As Asian and Pacific governments intensify their institutionalisation of new economic policies and socio-political and legal infrastructures in support of industry-led rapid growth, economic issues have been projected as critical political issues of the day. We hope that this issue of WIP Flyer will help in projecting the voice of women workers in the ongoing political debates on the so-called Asian Miracle. In the midst of their increased proletarianisation and its attendant poverty, Asian women workers have responded with a stronger demand for policy reforms.

    Unlike male workers, however, women workers are struggling at the same time for the recognition of their distinctive needs and rights as women. One problem that Filipino women have to face is sexual harassment in the workplace. Even though the problem is felt widely by the women, the same was not recognised as such by employers, unions, the legal system and the society in general. Not too long ago, it was a problem without a name. Sexual harassment was dismissed as a normal occurrence which women have to put up with, whether in the workplace, schools, and other places.

    For one, the criminal law provisions do not cover all acts of sexual harassment—they covered only the lewdest of acts. Moreover, the quantum of evidence in criminal cases is harder to obtain as the complainant will have to provide beyond reasonable doubt all elements of the crime. The provisions in the Labour Code referred only to discrimination in terms of wages and other benefits that is suffered by a worker who refused the sexual advances. And even then what was put across as issue is the retaliatory act of the perpetrator, not the act constituting the harassment itself.

    There was a strong basis then for the promulgation of a new law which defined and proscribed sexual harassment in the employment environment. However, they did not immediately gain the support of the male-dominated trade unions which were unreceptive to the idea of pushing for anti-sexual harassment in the workplaces.

    Varied activities were conducted throughout the lobbying efforts. Meetings between the women lobbyists and the legislators were also held in order to discuss the merits of the bill. A paid advertisement in a major newspaper was utilised as a tool for public awareness raising. For instance, the law criminalizes sexual harassment only in two defined environments— workplace and schools.